Be Taught Ds & Algorithms
c() generalises to cbind() and rbind() for matrices, and to abind() for arrays. You can transpose a matrix with t(); the generalised equivalent for arrays is aperm(). length() generalises to nrow() and ncol() for matrices, and dim() for arrays. While elements look like character vectors, they are really integers.
For this cause, it’s normally greatest to explicitly convert components to character vectors should you want string-like behaviour. In early variations of R, there was a memory benefit to using factors as an alternative of character vectors, however this is not the case.
The 4 frequent kinds of atomic vector are logical, integer, double , and character. The three properties of a vector are type, length, and attributes. A matrix will create a data frame with the identical variety of columns and rows as the matrix. You can take a look at if an object is a matrix or array using is.matrix() and is.array(), or by wanting at the length of the dim(). as.matrix() and as.array() make it simple to turn an existing vector into a matrix or array.
Sometimes when an information body is learn directly from a file, a column you’d thought would produce a numeric vector as an alternative produces a factor. This is brought on by a non-numeric worth in the column, usually a missing worth encoded in a particular way like . To remedy the situation, coerce the vector from an element to a character vector, and then from a character to a double vector. Dimensions, used to turn vectors into matrices and arrays, described in matrices and arrays.